ETF Decay

With the recent newly introduced volatility into the stock market, interest has spiked in ETFs. Not only has there been a huge increase in popularity in ETFs but even more so in the leveraged ETFs. With the 2x (SKF and SRS), and now, even 3x leveraged ETF's (FAS and FAZ), there are new opportunities for enormous volatile swings all in one day. Many penny stock day-traders have moved to the NYSE to trade these funds, as recent volume has been record high.

However, there are risks to playing these leveraged ETFs. First of all, they are momentum based funds. This means that you get better performance the higher the VIX levels are. As time has gone, a realized etf decay has shown up in these funds. Due to the leveraged factor of the funds, and that the funds are leveraged either at 2x or 3x interest rates on margin, there is an interest expense involved. Not only that, there is also the managing expense fee that is factored in, which digs into profits as well. By factoring these outside influences into the fund, over time, the price range of the fund slowly traces down.

After enough time, you can find funds trading at much lower levels than they did in times past. For instance, take UYG and SKF. Both are 2x leveraged Financials ETF. In November of 2008, SKF was at $262, with its inverse UYG at $3.74. To date, SKF is currently at $60.30, where its inverse is actually lower than before at $3.40. You would think with the rapid decline of SKF of almost 400% would result in a 400% gain in UYG, putting UYG near the $64 levels. However, due to the decrease in VIX levels as well as this ETF decay, the funds do not follow perfect tracking performance and allows for slippage.

As a result, it is important to play these "leveraged" etfs with caution. These funds will find best performance when VIX levels are high (since at high VIX levels, prices for options are inflated due to the "fear factor") and when holding periods are short. The 3x leveraged funds will experience slippage much quicker and more severe than the 2x. Non-leveraged etfs are almost immune to slippage, but still suffer some slightly due to management expenses.

This is not to discourage traders from trading these funds, instead to encourage to trade with caution. Obviously, best performance will be based on if you can time the bumps at the right time. Be cautious of your holding time, as that 52 week high for that leveraged etf may never be reached again, regardless of sector performance. ETFs can be traded as easily as any other stock with your brokerage firm. If you are without a brokerage firm, check out, as you can get free monthly trades.


  1. Peter T Says:

    The decay you're discussing is purely mathematical and caused by volatility in the underlying asset.

    This is how it works:

    You're writing:

    "Non-leveraged etfs are almost immune to slippage, but still suffer some slightly due to management expenses."

    They are of course "immune" to slippage due to volatility.

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    ETF decay is a term used to describe the continued erosion of services or performance that can occur with an Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF). ETFs are designed to track a certain index, such as the S&P 500; however, if the services and methodology that go into tracking the underlying index are not regularly monitored and updated, then the ETF can “decay” and no longer accurately reflect the index.

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    Given the context of ETF decay and the risks associated with leveraged ETFs, it is recommended that traders approach these funds with caution. While they can provide opportunities for significant gains during periods of high volatility, the decay effect and interest expenses can lead to slippage and reduced tracking performance over time. Traders should carefully time their entries and exits, consider holding periods, and be aware of the potential for lower fund values compared to past highs. It's essential to trade with caution and be mindful of the unique characteristics of leveraged ETFs when incorporating them into an investment strategy.

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    Your insights provide a clear understanding of the dynamics and risks associated with leveraged ETFs, particularly in the context of market volatility. The focus on momentum and the impact of VIX levels on performance, along with the potential decay due to interest and management expenses, underscores the complexity of these financial instruments.

  114. Says:

    Finance Fanatic's analysis on ETF decay is an eye-opener for those navigating the volatile seas of leveraged ETFs. The cautionary tale of SKF and UYG serves as a stark reminder that while the allure of high returns is tempting, the lurking dangers of interest expenses and management fees can erode profits over time. As someone who once delved into the world of leveraged ETFs, I've experienced the heart-pounding highs and gut-wrenching lows, making this post a valuable reality check for anyone seeking to ride the waves of market excitement.

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  127. Says:

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    Reading through, I'm reminded of my own foray into trading these instruments during a market upheaval, where I witnessed firsthand the erosion of gains over time due to decay and slippage. It's a cautionary tale urging traders to tread carefully amidst the allure of amplified returns, emphasizing the importance of timing, vigilance, and prudent risk management strategies.

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